Literacy Increase but Employment Decrease - Arthashastra

                   Litrate But Jobless Women

In our school we have heard several Quotes and Used several of them in essay writing like-:

1) Educated women would bring prosperity in the society.
2) Educating a man leads to educating one person but Educating women leads to educating whole family .
3) Educated women would maintain their dignity in this patriarcle society.
4) Women education helps to counter all the social norms eating the society.

But these all fails for me when I started Scrounging this and relates it with my Mother because she Graduated in 70's but till now work as a Homemaker because during 70's only 22% of the women were literate(able to read and wright in one language) and getting Graduated was a luxury  , mother was a lucky one to get a graduation degree and my Father who has passed Metriculation(10th pass) has a well paid job.

This Paradox was beyond my sight then and when I now when I am 19 I started researching this topic  and founded  that this was not only problem of my mother but most of the Indian women are Struggling with the same. 

As the Data shows that-:

- According to IMF report "Enrollment of Girls in higher education increased from 39% to 46% from 2007-14 and female participation decreased from 34% to  27% between 1999 and 2014 in India."
- According to the census number of women literate during following years were-:
                                                      1991 - 39%
                                                      2001 - 54%
                                                      2011 - 65%
- According to census data number of female worker were in -: 
                 2001 - 25.6%
                 2011 - 23.7%
- Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in higher education of India has registered an increase of  0.7% from 2016 to 2017.
-According to  Annual Employment - Unemployment Survey report women unemployment during respective years were -:
                                            2011-12 - 6.9%
                                            2012-13 - 7.2%
                                            2013-14 - 7.7%
                     Not done in 2014-15
                                            2015-16 - 8.7%
                                           Discontinued after that. 
- McKinsey Global Institute report-2015  said that in India Women  contribute just 17% of GDP and Global average is 37% , This report says that if Number of women worker reached to the number of men worker India's GDP would Increase by 60% by 2025.
- India Spend report of 2016 says that within South Asia  India has lowest rate of women employment after Pakistan.
- According to Economic Survey 2017-18 India's female workforce participation is 24% lowest is South Asia.
- According to World Bank Report 2017 female labour force participation in India fell from 34% to 27%.
- National Sample Survey report 2011 found that over a third of Women in Urban India and Half in rural India are engaged in House hold work and work which don't pay.
- As expected Bihar , Haryana , Jammu and Kashmir  and Punjab report the lowest women employment rate.
- Global Wage Report 2016-17 published by ILO says the gender wage gap in India is 30%.

As we got aquinted by the size of the problem let get a bleak knowledge of the reason of the problem-:

1) Marriage Incentive - Educating a girl is a inceIncen for her family because this will lead to good offer for Marriage.
2) Prestige - In society a family encounter high respect who keep their female in home.
3) Job - The growth in job market is not in the same pase as the growth of women education.
4) Per Capita Income - As per capita income of India is rising so Income of a person is also rising so their is a belief in people that if the women would not earn we won't starved to death.
5) Family - As the Old minded family members are family don't let them work.
6) Social Expectations - As their is a social expectation in the society that A women is expected to work at home and a men to work outside home  and social norm for appropriate behaviour , Indian Human Development Survey finds that a sizeable number of women have to take permission from their parents to go outside.
7) Infrastructure - As public sector are dominated by men because of which their is a lack of women sensitive/ specific infrastructure a major hinderence for women want to work outside their city.
8) Job Preference - The job preference of the majority of the women and society is towards women oriented job because of which women aspiring for something else suffer.
9) Income Gap - The Income Gap of women with same qualifications and experience and men with same qualifications and experience is 30% according to ILO. 

These are the problems faced by most of the literate women in India when they aspire for job , I believe that among this one reason would be my Mummys reason for not doing job after her graduation .


If you want to add something please comment below your comments would be appreciated.

Post a Comment